Arrival time p and s waves

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☑️ What is the arrival time between p and s waves?

S waves are indicated by an abrupt change in wave amplitude. In the seismogram below, we see that the S wave arrived at about 34 sec after the P wave arrived. This time difference is called the S-P interval and is the lag time between the P and S wave.

☑️ How to calculate p and s wave arrival?

  • You can calculate P and S wave arrivals as below: d = t(S −P) ⋅ 8 d = t(S −P) ⋅ 10 First formula is used by local earthquakes (epicentral distance: 0-500 km) and the second one is used for regional earthquakes (epicentral distance: up to 1000 km).

☑️ Are p waves and s waves transverse?

Properties of seismic waves

There are two types of seismic waves: P-waves, which are longitudinal waves. S-waves, which are transverse waves.

☑️ Where do p and s waves?

it is a under the ocean

☑️ What are p and s waves?

P waves travel fastest and are the first to arrive from the earthquake. In S or shear waves, rock oscillates perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation… Both P and S waves travel outward from an earthquake focus inside the earth.

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Top 9967 questions from Arrival time p and s waves

We’ve collected for you 9967 similar questions from the «Arrival time p and s waves» category:

What is the difference from p waves and s waves?

  • The major differences between P waves and S waves include wave speeds, wave types, travel capabilities, and wave sizes. Primary waves travel faster, move in a push-pull pattern, travel through solids, liquids and gases, and cause less damage due to their smaller size.

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Are p-waves faster than s waves?

P waves travel fastest and are the first to arrive from the earthquake. In S or shear waves, rock oscillates perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. In rock, S waves generally travel about 60% the speed of P waves, and the S wave always arrives after the P wave.

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Are compressional waves p or s waves?

In P or compressional waves, the vibration of the rock is in the direction of propagation. P waves travel fastest and are the first to arrive from the earthquake. In S or shear waves, rock oscillates perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation.

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How do you find p and s waves?

Measure the distance between the first P wave and the first S wave. In this case, the first P and S waves are 24 seconds apart. Find the point for 24 seconds on the left side of the chart of simplified S and P travel time curves and mark that point.

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How are s, p and d waves affected?

  • It explains in which way s -, p -, d -waves etc. are affected by the potential. For low energy scattering, only the first few l -quantum numbers are affected. If all but the first term are discarded, only the s -waves take part in the scattering process.

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How are the p and s waves monitored?

  • The motion and behavior of both P and S waves in the Earth are monitored to probe the interior structure of the Earth. Discontinuities in velocity as a function of depth are indicative of changes in phase or composition.

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What are the differences between s-waves p-waves and surface waves?

P-waves are Primary waves initially released from the Focus of an earthquake. A P-wave is a longitudinal wave or a compression wave with the force applied in the direction that the wave is travelling. These waves compress and expand and are called primary waves because they are the first waves to reach the seismometer.S-waves are secondary waves that vibrate in a transversedirection (from side and side as well as up and down). S-waves are not able to travel through liquids unlike P-waves.P and S-waves are known collectively as body waves because they travel within materials.Surface waves on the other hand travel along the outer surface of a material and are split into two main types, the Love wave and the Rayleigh wave.Surface waves cause high amplitude motions of the Earth's surface and are the most damaging to buildings.

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Why are love waves and rayleigh waves more destructive than p-waves and s-waves?

Love and Rayleigh waves are also known as surface waves as they travel along the surface of the earth. As the earth's surface is a free boundary, these surface waves have a larger amplitude than P and S (or body waves)which travel through the earth's interior. The amplitude of a wave is related to the amount of energy it has, where high amplitude waves have more energy! This means that the high amplitude high energy surface waves are capable of transferring more energy into structures or other objects on the surface and so can do more damage.

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Which waves are faster p-waves or s-waves?

P waves (Primary waves) are faster than S waves (Secondary waves). In case you were wondering, these two waves are body waves.

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Which is the shadow zone of p waves and s waves?

  • The emergence of Shadow Zone of P-waves and S-waves S-waves do not travel through liquids (they are attenuated). The entire zone beyond 103° does not receive S-waves, and hence this zone is identified as the shadow zone of S-waves. This observation led to the discovery of the liquid outer core.

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How do s waves and p waves travel through earths interior?

S waves travel only through solids, they are known as shear waves and their motion is perpendicular to the direction of travel.If the direction of motion is to the right, the wave would move up and down.P waves an move through both solids and liquids, their motion is parallel to the direction of travel.If the motion is to the right the wave will compress and decompress towards the right.

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What forms when p waves and s waves hit the surface?

When P and S waves hit the surface they transform into surface waves. P and S waves are signatures of fracture rock or earthquake. When a fracture occurs it sends energy out in all directions. P, or primary wave is the initial large "shock" of the earthquake. This travels through anything. S waves can only travel through solids. P wave is the shock, and the s wave is that side to side motion that follows. Then you can get in Love waves, and Rayleigh waves which are both types of surface waves.

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Why are s waves slower than p waves?

  • S-waves lag behind P-waves as they travel 1.7 times slower and can only pass through solid rock. However they do more damage because they’re bigger and shake the ground vertically and horizontally.

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Why are p waves faster than s waves?

  • P-waves travel 60% faster than S-waves on average because the interior of the Earth does not react the same way to both of them. P-waves are compression waves that apply a force in the direction of propagation. The energy is thus less easily transmitted through the medium, and S-waves are slower.

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Which is faster p waves or s waves?

  • SF Table 7.1 shows that P waves have a higher velocity than S waves when traveling through several mineral types. The speed at which seismic waves travel depends on the properties of the material that they are passing through. For example, the denser a material is, the faster a seismic wave travels (SF Table 7.1).

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Can s waves travel faster than p waves?

yes

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Are p waves more damaging or s waves?

  • S waves travel typically 60% of the speed of P waves. They are typically more damaging than the P waves because they are several times higher in amplitude. Earthquakes also produce surface waves which may cause motion perpendicular to the surface or parallel to the surface.

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Which is stronger p waves or s waves?

  • P-waves are faster and stronger than S-waves and move through the earth like a stretched spring. They can travel through liquids and solids and can be detected on the other side of the earth. Shock waves can be felt on the other side of the earth.

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Which travel farther p waves or s waves?

In P or compressional waves, the vibration of the rock is in the direction of propagation. P waves travel fastest and are the first to arrive from the earthquake. In S or shear waves, rock oscillates perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation.

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How are p waves different from s waves?

  • S waves cannot pass through the liquid outer core, but P waves can. The waves are refracted as they travel through the Earth due to a change in density of the medium. This causes the waves to travel in curved paths. When the waves cross the boundary between two different layers, there is a sudden change in direction due to refraction.

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How are the arrival times of p waves predictable?

  • The arrival times of P, S, and surface waves are shown to be predictable. This animates an IRIS poster linked with the animation. Seismic shadow zones have taught us much about the inside of the earth. This shows how P waves travel through solids and liquids, but S waves are stopped by the liquid outer core.

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What is the relationship between s and p waves?

P waves travel fastest and are the first to arrive from the earthquake. In S or shear waves, rock oscillates perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. In rock, S waves generally travel about 60% the speed of P waves, and the S wave always arrives after the P wave.

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What is the speed of p and s waves?

  • P waves travel at speeds between 1 and 14 km per second, while S waves travel significantly slower, between 1 and 8 km per second.

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What are the characteristics of p and s waves?

  • P and S waves have a characteristic which effects shaking: when they move through layers of rock in the crust, they are reflected or refracted at the interfaces between rock types. Whenever either wave is refracted or reflected, some of the energy of one type is converted to waves of the other type.

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Are p and s waves produced at the epicenter?

Primary (P) waves : Primary waves, the fastest wave sent , come from the focus not the epicenter. (S) waves : Secondary waves, the second fastest wave sent out by an earthquake, it comes from the focus also.

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What are the paths of p and s waves?

  • P and S waves' paths through Earth. The speed of P waves and S waves increases as they travel deeper into the Earth’s mantle. They travel through the Earth in curved paths, but they change ...

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How are p and s waves detected on earth?

  • These waves can be detected using seismographs. Some seismic waves are surface waves, while others can travel through the Earth. The speed of P waves and S waves increases as they travel deeper into the Earth’s mantle.

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What is the formula for p and s waves?

  • For instance velocity of the P and S waves are as below, respectively: α2 = λ + 2µ ρ β2 = µ ρ ρ is the density of the material through which the wave propagates. µ is the shear modulus which describes the material's response to shear stress. λ is he first Lame parameter.

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What are p and s waves in an earthquake?

  • Compression wave and shear wave are representing P and S wave, respectively. The other way is to detect their arrival to seismic station. For instance if you know the distance between earthquake's location and the location of the seismic station. You can calculate P and S wave arrivals as below:

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How do you find p wave arrival time?

I have no idea. Sorry

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Which waves are more destructive p waves or s waves?

  • An earthquake also causes secondary or shear waves, called S waves. These travel at about half the speed of P waves, but can be much more destructive. S waves move the earth perpendicularly to the direction the wave is traveling. Picking up the Slinky again, move it left and right, rather than forward and back.

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Why do p waves travel faster than s waves?

  • P-waves are compression waves that apply a force in the direction of propagation. As the interior of the Earth is almost incompressible, P-waves transmit their energy quite easily through the medium and thus travel quickly. On the other hand, S-waves are shear waves, which means that the motion...

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Why are there no p waves or s waves?

S waves cannot pass through the liquid outer core, but P waves can. The waves are refracted as they travel through the Earth due to a change in density of the medium. This causes the waves to travel in curved paths.

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Where are there no p waves or s waves?

Shadow zone

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Which wave travels farther p-waves or s-waves?

The velocity of s-wave is 60% of p-wave, for a given homogeneous and isotropic medium and a fixed time p-wave would travel farther.

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Why do p waves show up before s waves?

P-waves travel 60% faster than S-waves on average because the interior of the Earth does not react the same way to both of them… As the interior of the Earth is almost incompressible, P-waves transmit their energy quite easily through the medium and thus travel quickly.

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Which travels faster p or s waves?

  • P-waves travel 60% faster than S-waves on average because the interior of the Earth does not react the same way to both of them. P-waves are compression waves that apply a force in the direction of propagation.

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How do p and s waves move through the earth?

  • They travel through the Earth’s interior and can pass through both solid and molten rock. They shake the ground back and forth – like a Slinky – in their travel direction, but do little damage as they only move buildings up and down. Secondary (shear) waves S-waves lag behind P-waves as they travel 1.7 times slower...

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Where do s and p waves pass through the earth?

  • Velocities slow in the region just above the core-mantle boundary (the D” (d-double-prime) layer or “ultra-low-velocity zone”). S waves do not pass through the outer liquid part of the core, but S waves can be created by P waves at the surface of the inner core and their inner core velocity is 3.6 km/s.

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How are p and s waves used to locate earthquakes?

  • We can use the fact that P and S waves travel at different speeds to locate earthquakes. Assume a seismometer are is far enough from the earthquake that the waves travel roughly horizontally, which is about 50 to 500 km for shallow earthquakes.

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P wave and s waves which do you feel first?

P waves travel fastest and are the first to arrive from the earthquake. In S or shear waves, rock oscillates perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. In rock, S waves generally travel about 60% the speed of P waves, and the S wave always arrives after the P wave.

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Why do p wave and s waves follow curved paths?

gravity

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Why do surface wave arrive after p and s waves?

How are P-waves different from S-waves?

  • As the interior of the Earth is almost incompressible, P-waves transmit their energy quite easily through the medium and thus travel quickly. On the other hand, S-waves are shear waves, which means that the motion of the medium is perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave.

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What happens when p and s waves travel through earth?

  • The diagrams show what happens when P waves and S waves pass through the Earth. S waves cannot pass through the liquid outer core, but P waves can. The waves are refracted as they travel through the Earth due to a change in density of the medium. This causes the waves to travel in curved paths.

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How do s and p waves travel through the earth?

  • Both P and S waves travel outward from an earthquake focus inside the earth. The waves are often seen as separate arrivals recorded on seismographs at large distances from the earthquake. The direct P wave arrives first because its path is through the higher speed, dense rocks deeper in the earth.

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How much time between p wave and s wave?

S waves are indicated by an abrupt change in wave amplitude. In the seismogram below, we see that the S wave arrived at about 34 sec after the P wave arrived. This time difference is called the S-P interval and is the lag time between the P and S wave.

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Do geologists use the difference in the arrival time of p and s waves at a seismograph to determine the magnitude of an earthquake?

No. Seismologists (a type of geophysicist) use the difference in the arrival time of P and S waves to estimate the distance from the seismometer station to the epicentre of the earthquake.

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Why are p waves twice as fast as s waves?

  • P waves travel twice as fast as S waves. The type of material through which they can travel: Compressional waves can travel through all states of matter. This explains why sound waves (which are a type of compressional wave) can travel through solids, liquids and gases. P waves are compressional waves.

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Which wave does more damage p waves or s waves?

  • S waves are more dangerous than P waves because they have greater amplitude and produce vertical and horizontal motion of the ground surface. The slowest waves, surface waves, arrive last.

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How fast are the p waves compared to s waves?

  • P waves travel faster than S waves, and are the first waves recorded by a seismograph in the event of a disturbance. P waves travel at speeds between 1 and 14 km per second, while S waves travel significantly slower, between 1 and 8 km per second.

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